In principle, you can charge any USB device or its battery with any USB charger. However, it may take a long time when the charger is low. And some power-hungry tablets like the iPad won't even start charging if the power adapter is very weak. The higher the charging power in W or the charging current in A, the higher the possible power.
No, the charger cannot be too strong. The charger only provides fast charging or high charging power if the smartphone or tablet to be charged allows it. The smartphone must support QuickCharge, USB PowerDelivery or one of the other fast charging standards. Otherwise, the charger supplies the usual 5V charging voltage. So nothing can break.
Multiple sockets with surge protection reduce voltage spikes so that connected devices are not damaged. Surges can be caused by nearby lightning, static electricity, or defective equipment. If an overvoltage occurs, it will be dissipated without damaging any component.